NASA Cape Canaveral

The original structure of the pads was remodeled for the needs of the Space Shuttle, starting with Pad 39A after the last Saturn V launch, and in 1977 for Pad 39B after the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in 1975. Launch towers Each pad contained a two-piece access tower system, the Fixed Service Structure (FSS) and the Rotating Service Structure (RSS). The FSS permitted access to the Shuttle via a retractable arm and a “beanie cap” to capture vented LOX from the External Tank. The RSS contained the Payload Changeout Room, which offered “clean” access to the orbiter’s payload bay, protection from the elements, and protection in winds up to 60 knots (110 km/h).

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